Vectors and Matrices


Special Kinds of Matrices

The Geometry of Vector Operations

Solving Linear Equations

The Geometry of Low-Dimensional Solutions

Linear Equations with Special Coefficients

Uniqueness of Reduced Echelon Form

Matrices and Linearity

Matrix Mappings

The Principle of Superposition

Determinants of 2 × 2 Matrices

Solving Ordinary Differential Equations

A Single Differential Equation

Graphing Solutions to Differential Equations

Phase Space Pictures and Equilibria

Separation of Variables

Uncoupled Linear Systems of Two Equations

Coupled Linear Systems

The Initial Value Problem and Eigenvectors

Eigenvalues of 2 × 2 Matrices

Initial Value Problems Revisited

Vector Spaces

Vector Spaces and Subspaces

Construction of Subspaces

Dimension and Bases

Closed Form Solutions for Planar ODEs

The Initial Value Problem

Closed Form Solutions by the Direct Method

Solutions Using Matrix Exponentials

Linear Normal Form Planar Systems

Similar Matrices

Formulas for Matrix Exponentials

Second Order Equations

Qualitative Theory of Planar ODEs

Sinks, Saddles, and Sources

Phase Portraits of Sinks

Phase Portraits of Nonhyperbolic Systems

Determinants and Eigenvalues



Existence of Determinants

Linear Maps and Changes of Coordinates

Linear Mappings and Bases


Least Squares Fitting of Data

Symmetric Matrices

Matrix Normal Forms

Markov Matrix Theory

Proof of Jordan Normal Form

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