After completing this section, students should be able to do the following.

  • Describe the basic properties of sinusoidal functions.
  • Compare and contrast phase and time-delay.
  • Recognize leading and lagging signals.
  • Explain why a signal is leading or lagging.
  • Remember eLi the iCe man and CIVIC mnemonics.
  • Explain how a signal is different at the beginning and end of a transmission line.
  • Derive equation of a wave on a transmission line by considering the finite propagation speed of electric signals.
  • Determine whether the transmission-line theory should be used based on line length and signal frequency.